4 different charging methods of lithium battery pack

Some people have done experiments specially: after a fully charged 18650 lithium battery sits for a year, its total capacity will drop by 20%; while a lithium battery charged to 40% will only drop by 5% after a year of standing. Lithium batteries that are not used for a long time can be charged to about 50% of its rated capacity and stored at low temperatures (such as refrigerators).

The lithium-ion battery itself will have a certain self-leakage, and the protection board will also have a power consumption of microampere level, so during long-term storage, it is necessary to measure the voltage regularly and supplementary charging. Below are 4 different charging methods of 18650 lithium-ion battery pack.

1. High-voltage charging: This charging method does not have a special control circuit. It directly uses a 5V power supply (or a diode in series to step down the voltage) to charge the battery with the protection board, which is completely dependent on the high-voltage limit of the protection board. The characteristic is that the current is very large at the beginning, and then gradually decreases, floating at any time.

2. Constant voltage charging: This method is similar to the previous one. Constant voltage is actually “limiting voltage”. Set a relatively accurate high voltage, and then charge to that voltage. , If the cut-off voltage of this kind of charger is very accurate, it is safe to be with low voltage. If it is too high, it has to rely on the protection board too. It is common in current mobile phone all-around charging and flashlight direct charging. This kind of charger costs less than a dollar and is made of low-quality parts. The retail price varies from 1 to 10 dollars, and it is hard to say how long it will last.

3. Constant current charging: This method is still derived from the previous and the first method, but it limits the highest charging current. Constant current and constant voltage are actually “current limiting and voltage limiting”. This kind of circuit is more popular, such as Nanfu battery, it do not completely cut off after being fully charged, and switch to trickle floating charge – now it is believed that long-term low-current charging is one of the reasons for battery flatulence.

4. Intelligent charging: This is now considered an ideal charging management method. It follows the latest charging algorithm and is integrated in a small SMD IC. The peripheral circuit is simple, stable and reliable, such as TP4054/4055/4056 /4057, TP4002/5000, MAX1879, etc. The main feature of this chip is that it will monitor the voltage and current at the same time when judging whether it is full, stop charging, or stop charging when the charging current is less than (usually about 50mA); completely cut off after full charging, no trickle floating, but monitoring voltage at any time, if the battery voltage drops to a certain value and then starts charging again.

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