When Do Lithium Ion Batteries Explode?

When Do Lithium Ion Batteries Explode?

Thermal runaway

Thermal runaway is a dangerous condition that can lead to a battery’s premature failure. It is caused when microscopic metal particles come into contact with one or more parts of the battery and cause a short-circuit. The resulting heat from the overheated battery increases the internal pressure. Thermal runaway can be prevented with fail-safe measures, such as an inbuilt thermal fuse. However, a battery’s thermal fuse cannot stop all chemical reactions.

The rate of decomposition and self-heating of the cell is directly related to its exothermic capacity. Once the cycle of thermal runaway has been triggered, the temperature of the cell increases exponentially, creating a self-feeding loop. The cell begins to heat up faster than it can release heat to the surrounding environment, causing it to become unstable.

Overcharging

Lithium ion batteries are very fragile and can explode if they are overcharged. This problem usually occurs when a battery is improperly charged or is not compatible with a charging device. Other common causes of battery explosion are a faulty charger or an inadequate amount of protection inside the battery.

An overcharge causes lithium ions to move from the positive electrode to the negative electrode at a high voltage. This causes the electrolyte inside the battery to become very hot and flammable. This is the main cause of lithium ion batteries exploding. A researcher at the National University of Singapore named Palani Balaya demonstrated how lithium ion batteries can explode.

The battery can also explode due to vibration, puncture, or contact with metal. To prevent this, it is best to avoid leaving the battery to charge unattended. Additionally, the battery fluid can cause damage to your skin or eyes if it comes in contact with your skin.

Manufacturing error

While lithium batteries have been safe to use for decades, there are still cases where they can fail. Though these battery explosions are rare, they are still newsworthy. Despite this, manufacturers are trying to make their manufacturing processes safer. One way to prevent this is to reduce the number of metallic dust particles in the cells. Metal dust can lead to internal short circuits. This is why lithium battery manufacturers try to minimize these dust particles.
It is very important to choose a right lithium batteries manufactuer and suppliers for your project.

Overdischarge

Lithium ion batteries are susceptible to overdischarge. The condition can occur for a variety of reasons, including a faulty charger or improper battery protection. Overdischarge can also be caused by excessive heat from a device. The heat can cause needle-like lithium crystals to form on the electrode plate, causing a micro-short circuit and explosion. The battery can also be damaged by a broken shell, which can lead to an internal short circuit and explosion.

Lithium ion batteries can also explode due to a short circuit. This short circuit causes massive current discharge. The battery will also heat up, which can lead to thermal runaway. The hot battery can explode as the reaction speeds up, causing the cell to smoke or ignite.